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GEOPOLITICS

Geopolitics in the New Millennium
The Centre periodically surveys theories of geopolitics and international relations, to explore the issues of international security, organisation, regional integration, nationalism, state formation and conflict. Historic geopolitical cases from Europe, North Africa and across Eurasia, provide opportunities to assess theoretical approaches and profile the security and foreign policy of the United States. The United States has been the
global key player in geopolitics ever since it became a superpower with the Second World War. Having a multi-ocean navy, nuclear weapons and a global presence, the United States’ hegemonic grip on much of the world – either by political influence, economics or force – continues to pressure countries and organisations that are in direct competition or conflict with its own. Of late, as geopolitical rivalries have slowly been edging back onto the centre stage we are witnessing a new geopolitics in the new millennium. According to a Global Research report in March of 2016, the United States’ military installations operate and control between 700 and 800 military bases worldwide in 156 countries. This military domination is in direct counterbalance with Russia, China, Iran and Japan, and organisations like the BRICS group, the New Development Bank and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. The United States and the European Union find these trends troubling; both would rather move past geopolitical matters of territory and military power and focus instead on world order and global governance – primarily on trade liberalisation, nuclear nonproliferation, human rights and the rule of law. However, much of the West’s foreign policy has been to shift international relations away from zero-sum issues toward win-win ones. The United States, fundamentally, misconstrued what the collapse of the Soviet Union denoted and the ideological triumph of liberal capitalist democracy over communism. Russia, China and Iran never integrated into the geopolitical settlement that followed the Cold War, and thus continue to make geopolitical counterbalances that threaten American global hegemony. This international politics dynamic raises concerns regarding peace, cooperation, security and world governance.

RIVAL NON-AMERICAN HEGEMONIC ENTITIES
BRICS GROUP
 
EUROPEAN UNION VERSUS THE EURASIAN CUSTOMS UNION
 
SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANISATION
 
PETROCHINA RESOURCES

Meta-geopolitics Framework
Globalisation and transnational phenomena, technological innovation or transcultural issues and synergies are all factors that bear on international relations. For subordinate countries under hegemonic control, the Centre has observed various forms of meta-geopolitics, in which a combination of traditional and new dimensions of geopolitics offers a multidimensional view of power and power relationships. Under this framework, the importance of geography is superseded by the combination of hard and soft power tools that countries can employ to preserve and obtain a certain level of sovereignty. It defines seven key dimensions of state power, including: social and health issues, domestic politics, economics, environment, science and human potential, military and security issues and international diplomacy. Meta-geopolitics captures the enduring relevance of classical geopolitical thinking, the challenges and normative shifts of our contemporary era, as well as the numerous factors that shape and determine state power and international politics. Accepting that our contemporary world is a highly complex environment means precisely acknowledging that both old and new security issues coexist. Natural resources, cultural fault lines, strategic chokepoints or weather patterns will continue to constrain or give extra leverage to countries on the global scene.

Reference
Dufour, J. (2016). "The Worldwide Network of US Military Bases", Global Research, Available: [www.globalresearch.ca/the-worldwide-network-of-us-military-bases/5564].
RESEARCH
SUSTAINABILITY
HUMAN GEOGRAPHY ENVIRONMENT
INTERDISCIPLINARY SOCIETAL STUDIES
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INSTITUTIONAL COLLABORATION






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